Fresh-keeping technology of peach, plum and apricot

In recent years, the production of peaches, plums and apricots has developed rapidly. The application of a variety of new cultivation techniques has enabled early, high-yield and stable production to be realized, and the storage and preservation of peach, plum and apricot has become increasingly important. However, because these three kinds of fruits mature during the high temperature season and are not resistant to storage and transportation, the post-harvest ripening process proceeds quickly and cannot be stored at room temperature. Therefore, what is generally done is to avoid the market season and prolong the processing season. Short-term storage. I. Variety and picking period 1. The tolerance of different peach, plum and apricot varieties is very different. Generally, early maturing varieties are not resistant to storage and transportation, and late-maturing varieties have better storage and transportation resistance. Such as peach varieties May fresh, peach and other generally intolerant storage; and late-maturing varieties such as Feicheng peach, Shenzhou Peach, Shaanxi winter peach and other resistant storage; Okubo, white wind, Okayama white, red and other varieties It also has good tolerance to storage; the nucleus-resistant species and soft solute species have poor tolerance. The characteristics of apricot and plum are similar to that of peach. 2. There are many factors affecting the storage effect of peach, plum and apricot in the picking period, including geographical area and climate. The fruit picking period is one of the most important factors affecting the quality, quality and storage life of the fruit during storage. If the fruit is harvested too early, it will reduce the flavor after ripening, and it will be vulnerable to cold damage. If the fruit is picked too late, the fruit will be too soft, vulnerable to mechanical injury and severely rotted and difficult to store. Therefore, grasping the appropriate picking period not only allows the fruit to grow sufficiently, but also basically reflects the quality of its variety, such as color, aroma, etc., and can keep the fruit meat at the right time when it is harvested. This is a key measure to extend the shelf life. Taking peach as an example, the ripening period of peach is currently classified into the following grades in production: 7 Mature: The background is green, the fruit is fully developed, the fruit surface is basically flat without pits, and the middle and late-maturing varieties have a small amount of pits near the sutures. Traces, fruit surface hair thicker. 8 Mature: Green begins to fade, becoming light green (commonly known as white). The fruit surface is full, the hairiness is reduced, the flesh is slightly hard, and the sun surface is slightly colored. 9 Mature: Most of the green color faded out, and the different varieties showed the background color of the variety. The shade surface was still light green. Less furry, slightly more fleshy and aromatic. Most of the colored varieties are colored and show the flavor characteristics of the varieties. 10 Mature: The fruit hair is easy to fall off, leaving no residual green. The solute varieties are soft and juicy and peel easily. The soft solute peach breaks down when the juice is broken, and the hard solute is not easily broken, but it is also easy to crush. Hard nectar began to become soft cotton, insoluble peach greater elasticity. Local fresh sales should be suitable for mature picking from 8 to 9 and remote transportation can be harvested at 7 to 8 ripening. For the processing of peach should be 8 to 9 mature picking, for storage of peaches with 7 to 8 mature picking is appropriate. In addition, peaches, plums, and apricots have fruit stalks when they are picked. If the fruits do not mature on the tree, they must be picked separately. And pay attention to bring some (1 to 3) leaves and protect fruit powder (Lee), to minimize mechanical injury. Second, storage conditions, storage period and storage methods 1. Storage conditions and storage period (1) Peach 1 suitable storage temperature: 3 °C ~ 5 °C; 2 relative humidity: 90% ~ 95%; 3 atmosphere adjustment index: oxygen 3% ~ 9% 5, carbon dioxide 1% ~ 5%; 4 storage period: 2 weeks ~ 6 weeks. (2) Li 1 suitable storage temperature: 0 °C ~ 1 °C; 2 relative humidity: 85% ~ 90%; 3 atmosphere adjustment index: oxygen 3% ~ 5%, carbon dioxide 5%; 4 storage period: 2 weeks ~ 4 weeks . (3) apricot 1 suitable temperature storage: 0 °C ~ 1 °C; 2 relative humidity: 90% ~ 95%; 3 atmosphere adjustment index: oxygen 2% ~ 3%, carbon dioxide 2.5% ~ 3%; 4 storage period: 1 week ~ 3 weeks. 2. Storage methods Tao, Li, and apricot are less resistant to storage, and they are generally used for short-term storage to regulate market supply and demand. Therefore, it is best to use a mechanical refrigerator (or cold storage at 10 °C) for storage, so that it can maintain a more appropriate storage temperature and humidity. Research and application of the use of controlled atmosphere storage are still under exploration. Third, the main problems and solutions Peach, plum, apricot in the storage and transportation problems often occur over softening, bacteria caused by rot and cold damage caused by internal browning and lightening and so on. 1. Over-ripening Softening of over-ripening and softening of peach, plum and apricot is mainly due to the late picking, the fruit is too mature, and because of the high temperature in the harvesting season, it cannot be pre-cooled in time or quickly put into the cold storage to cool and store fruits. Soon after the softening, the production of "apricot is a disaster" is the reason. Another example is the hardness of the peach when harvested 6.58 kg / cm 2. After 2 days at 21.3 °C can be reduced to 2.1 kg / cm 2; and at 4.5 °C after 14 days before falling to the above hardness, hardness at 0 °C almost no Change (2 weeks). The main measures to prevent excessive softening of peach, plum and apricot are as follows: (1) Choose appropriate picking so that most of the stored fruit matures at 7-8. Use baskets with soft liners (such as grass, leaves, and paper, etc.) or boxes with lining (10 kg to 15 kg/carton) to reduce fruit squeezing. (2) Pre-cooling at the place of production. Cold air cooling (strong air cooling) or cooling with cold water of 0.5°C to 1°C can be used. The latter method can be cooled quickly, and weight loss can be reduced, and then stored in a cold store. (3) Storage as soon as possible, and the fruit temperature is reduced to the appropriate storage temperature (0 °C ~ 1 °C), which is the most effective way to prevent fruit from becoming soft. 2. The large amount of rot caused by rotten peach, plum and apricot during storage and transportation is mainly caused by microbial diseases (brown rot, soft rot, spoilage, and root mold rot). Brown rot, spoilage disease, and rhizoponia rot disease mainly affect the fruit in the field. The pathogen invades the fruit through insect infestation, lenticels, etc., and begins to occur in large quantities when the environment conditions are appropriate during storage and transportation. The contact of diseased fruit with healthy fruit during storage can also rot the healthy fruit. Soft rot mainly invades mature fruits through wounds or infects them through contact. The prevention and control methods for various diseases are summarized below: (1) Strengthen orchard management. Clear garden in winter, pruning, make the tree airy and transparent. Elimination of harmful germs in fields, packing rooms and packaging containers. Strengthen spraying protection during fruit growth, spray 5 minutes of lime sulfur before germination, spray half a month from half to June, and spray 65% ​​zein zinc wettable powder 500 times or Bomi 0.3 degree stone every half month Sulfur mixture. (2) A series of operations such as harvesting, grading, packaging, storage and transportation, to avoid mechanical injury and to strictly control the quality of the fruit. (3) The orchard (origin) is pre-cooled or the fruit is stored in a cold store in time to quickly reduce the fruit to less than 4.5°C. Soft rot pathogens cannot grow below 3°C, which is the most effective for controlling brown rot and soft rot. method. (4) Treat with fruit germicide. Generally, 100 to 1000 ppm of Benzene and 450 to 900 ppm of dichloronitroaniline (DCNA) are mixed to dip fruit (the former is resistant to brown rot, and the latter is resistant to soft rot). (5) hot fruit dip. The fruit was soaked in hot water at 52°C-53.8°C for 2 minutes to 2.5 minutes, or 46°C hot water for 5 minutes to kill pathogenic spores and prevent the development of initial infection. (6) Application AF-Z fresh-keeping paper single fruit packaging can be preserved fresh. 3. Cold damage Due to the high temperature during the growth of peach, plum and apricot fruits, it has a strong sensitivity to low temperatures and is very prone to cold damage. Below -1°C, it can cause freezing damage. Therefore, when storing peach, plum, apricot, we must pay attention to the cold storage temperature management. Generally stored at 0 °C for 3 weeks to 4 weeks, the fruit is susceptible to internal browning, and gradually spread outward, the original flavor loss. There are the following measures in production to prevent fruit browning. (1) Intermittent variable temperature storage: The fruit was stored at -0.5°C to 0°C for 2 weeks, then raised to 18°C ​​for 2 days, and then stored at a low temperature. This was repeated. (2) Atmosphere storage: Storage at about 0°C, oxygen 3%, and carbon dioxide 5%, can reduce the occurrence of browning. If combined with the intermittent temperature change method, better results can be obtained. (3) Two kinds of temperature storage: First storage at 0°C for about 2 weeks, then storage at 5°C (4.5°C to 8°C) or 7°C to 18°C. It can also be stored at 0°C for 2 weeks to 3 weeks and then gradually warmed. (4) Peach is stored at 21°C to 24°C for 2 days to 3 days, and then stored at 0°C. The biggest limiting factor in the short shelf life of peach, plum and apricot is the browning and lightening of flesh caused by cold injury. Therefore, when a producer stores peaches, he must intensify inspections of fruit changes during storage and timely discover and promptly dispose of them.

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