Navel orange high yield and quality cultivation techniques

I. Growth and development indicators of high yield of navel orange

1. Tree shape, plant height and crown width. The 4-5-year-old trees cultivate natural round-shaped heads. The trunk height of adult trees is controlled at 40 cm and the tree height is controlled at about 2.5 meters. The high-yield crown width should be maintained at about 2.80 meters x 2.60 meters.

2. Diameter and grading. Newhall branch stem diameter should reach the main trunk (20 cm above the ground) 8.0 cm, the main branch 5.5 cm above, the number of branch branches and the results of the branches of the branches reached 8 or more, most of the results of the mother branches for the spring shoots, in order to performance Tens of thousands of jins of high production.

3. Leaf, leaf screen and leaf-fruit ratio. To cultivate large, thick, thick green leaves to form a vigorous high-yield type of leaf screen, generally requiring a leaf-fruit ratio of 50-55:1.

4. Number of results per plant. Above 8 years of age, the number of fruit per plant in Newhall should be controlled at 340-380, with a fruit weight of 240 grams or more, and the distribution is even. The yield per plant is more than 80 kg.

Second, navel orange high yield and quality cultivation techniques

(I) Rational planning and scientific establishment of parks

1. Garden choice: Choose sunny and nearby pollution-free sources, mountainous areas with a slope of less than 25 degrees and 250-400 meters above sea level, slightly acidic soils with good drainage performance, deep and moist soil, and high organic matter content.

2. Site preparation, digging, and basal fertilization: Unified planning, excavation of terraces according to contours, digging of 100 cm, 80-100 cm deep holes, terrace width 2.5-3 m, row spacing 3 mx 4 m, 55 per mu Strains. Applying basal fertilizer, each hole is layered with 10-30 kg of straw, 10-30 kg of weeds, 1-3 kg of cooked cake fat, 50 kg of pig dung, 50 g of human waste, 1-2 kg of superphosphate, and 1-1.5 lime kg. Should pay attention to anti-fever burning root, and do a good job on the table 20-25 centimeters of planting soil.

(b) Interplanting green manure and improving soil

The soil in the red soil is viscous, acidic, and thin, with poor permeability and low content of organic matter. The orchard interplants green manure, deep-enlarges the hole, combines the application of organic fertilizer, and improves the orchard soil. Green manure can be selected from Japanese blue and spring soybeans. After 3 years of general colonization, the soil is expanded every year. The main materials are decomposed pig manure, sheep manure, compound fertilizer, calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, quicklime, weeds, and green manure etc. Acupuncture points, changing soil every year.

(c) Reasonable pruning and proper fruit thinning

Pruning is mainly winter, with three times in spring, summer and autumn. Navel orange spring, summer, autumn shoots can become the result of the mother, young trees result in the main shoots of autumn shoots, with the growth of age, spring shoots as a result of the proportion of mother branches gradually increased to 6-18 cm long, Coarse 0.3-0.7 cm results mother mother is better. Pruning in winter should be completely cut off the dead branches, branches, branches, cross branches, overlapping branches, drooping branches and weak branches; excessive amount of sparse dense; too long for short cuts, leaving for the preparation of branches. Summer pruning mainly wiped out summer shoots and dredged small, malformed, dense and diseased young fruit several times to increase the proportion of primary fruit and increase economic benefits.

(D) fertilizer and water management

Every spring, the bud fertilizer, the preserved flower fertilizer and the fruit fertilizer are applied, the fruit fertilizer is applied in summer, the base fertilizer in autumn and the base fertilizer in winter are applied 6 times in total, and the method of “multiple application, two times of heavy, and four times of light” is adopted. Combining chemical fertilizers with farmyard fertilizers, it is applied in depth to the whole garden and re-applied organic fertilizer. This fertilization method is safe, effective, and has a strong water storage capacity, can always maintain a moist state, and has few fruit cracks.

(5) Integrated pest management

There are many types of diseases and pests of navel oranges, including: ulcer disease, red spider, leaf miner, fruit sucking tobacco moth, and fleas. Prevention measures include:

1. Agricultural control. Increase phosphorus and potash fertilizers to improve the resistance to diseases and insect pests in the trees; do a good job in the winter garden clearance and minimize the number of disease and insect pests.
2. Biological control. In early August every year, the predatory mites are released at the branches of trees, and 1-2 boxes per plant have good control effect. It is simple and saves time and labor.
3. Fruit bag protection. It can solve outstanding problems such as rough skin, high disease and fruit rate, and poor appearance quality.
4. Chemical control. Prevention and treatment of ulcers: Apply more organic fertilizer to increase tree vigor, do a good job in the winter clearing of the garden, and often cut off diseased leaves. Combine 2-3 cm of tree shoots each time, and spray them once. The use of agents: 0.5% Bordeaux mixture, can kill 600 times the liquid (US imports), 780 units / ml of agricultural streptomycin, 14% ulcer Ling 300 times. Prevention and treatment of red spiders and rust ticks: In addition to grasping the winter clearing garden and reducing the density of worms, it is the peak period from May to June and from September to October. The use of agents are: 20% chlorsulfuron 2000 times solution, azoxanthene 1500 times solution, chlorinated star 2000 times solution, 5% osmatisol 800-1500 times solution. In the winter cold season, Baume 1 degree lime sulfur can be used. Leafminer prevention and control: The method of combining shoots with buds, spraying tips and sprays is used to prevent and control leaf miners. Generally, once a year, they are sprayed once a year on July 12th and 15th. Spray it once more in 10 days. Anthraquinones prevention and control: mainly to prevent warts, should seize the nymph stage of each generation for spraying control, can use 40% omethoate 800 times. In winter, 10 times of pineine mixture can be used to clean the garden. Suction of fruit-feeding nightflies: 5.7% of Baishu's EC can be used for 1000 times, spraying twice in early September and early October respectively.

(6) Navel orange bagging

Citrus special paper bags are generally used. The single-layer white translucent material has a size of 19 cm*15 cm. The bagging period is after the second physiological drop; the bag removal period can be carried out simultaneously with fruit harvesting.

Navel orange bagging can effectively prevent the production of umbilical yellow cracking fruit, sun-burning fruit and reticulate fruit; avoid direct contact between pesticides and fruit noodles and reduce the pesticide residue of fruit; can increase the commodity grade and market sales price of fruits, after bagging The economic benefits have been significantly improved.

(7) Comprehensive control measures for cracking of navel orange

Navel orange fruit cracking is more serious, especially Penna navel orange, fruit cracking rate is usually about 20%, up to 50% or more serious. The main prevention measures include: 1 Balanced water supply to reduce the difference between dry and wet soil, especially when it is not raining for a long time, it is necessary to timely spray or spray water to improve the microclimate of the orchard, increase the relative humidity of the air, avoid excessive drying of the peel, and the moisture of the pulp is too great. Cause cracking. (2) Covering straw or other lines between the tree trays to enhance the ability of the orchards to resist drought and water and regulate temperature. 3 timely prevention and control of pests and diseases, with particular attention to the prevention and control of scale insects and rust mites. 4 In the early and late June before and after the second physiological fruit drop, the umbilical parts of young fruit were coated with 0.015% and 0.02% of gibberellic acid, respectively, and the anti-cracking effect was obvious, and it also had a protective effect. The application of a 0.02% gibberellin plus thiophanate-methyl 800 times solution to the mild primary fruit cracks will allow the wound to heal quickly and rarely recur.

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