Peanuts are field crops with strong drought resistance, and their total water consumption is far less than that of wheat, corn, cotton and other crops. The research results and practical experience have proved that the selection of drought-resistant varieties and the implementation of drought-resistant cultivation management measures can greatly improve the ability of peanuts to resist drought. In general, drought can achieve higher yields without watering.
First, the selection of varieties with strong drought resistance showed that the adaptability of different peanut varieties to drought was very different. After 3 days, 5 days and 7 days after water stress treatment, the root vigor of drought-tolerant varieties was better than that of soil moisture. It dropped by 12.9%, 34.4% and 46.0%. However, the root vigor of drought-sensitive varieties decreased by 28.6%, 53.8% and 67.7% when compared with soil moisture. Peanut varieties comparison experiments and demonstration fields can also intuitively see the differences in the ability of different varieties to adapt to drought. The drought-tolerant cultivars generally have smaller leaves and are laterally distributed and uneven; flowering is concentrated and the flowering period is short. When drought stress is less, flowering or even flowering is not achieved. When drought stress is relieved, flowering occurs quickly and the cultivar is quickly opened. The varieties that are currently better adapted to drought are the extremely early-maturing and high-yielding large-peanut new varieties, Qinghua No.7 (formerly known as Yuyu No. 6) and Yuyu 502, and the early-maturing and high-yielding new peanut varieties, Qinghua No. 5 (formerly known as Yuyu No. 5) and Pro. Flower No. 6 (formerly known as Yu Yu No. 3), early-maturing pearl bean-type small peanut new variety Qinghua No. 6 (formerly known as Yu Yu No. 11) and so on.
Second, the implementation of water-saving drought-resistant cultivation method - Peanut mulching W cultivation method Peanut mulching film cultivation, with a significant role in the preservation of lotus root and raise peony, promote peanut root development, total root volume increased 54.83%, enhance water absorption capacity and improve drought resistance. However, this drought-resistance effect was limited to the seedling emergence and seedling stage. Since then, drought stress was aggravated by soil evaporation of membrane pores and ineffective rain below 15 mm. With the expansion of the area covered by peanuts, the management has become more extensive and the drought stress has gradually increased. After more than 10 years of targeted and innovative research, the invention of peanut mulching W cultivation method, also known as water-saving and drought-resistant cultivation method, has been applied for and obtained national invention patents. The method consists of seeding a peanut into a shallow groove with a width of about 5 cm and a depth of about 2 cm and reclaiming the dirt on the membrane after sowing. Unearthed, membrane holes were blocked by seedling stems, which basically prevented soil moisture from evaporating and running through the membrane pores. Under light rain, they concentrated on the membrane and flowed into shallow trenches to penetrate the roots of peanut seedlings and replenish the water under the membrane. By better mentioning the use of groundwater, preventing run-off, and making full use of natural precipitation, we can effectively enhance peanuts' ability to resist drought. The law is also more suitable for peanut branching and flowering results, the number of results increased, double prunes and full fruit index and the rate of exiting kernels increased, so that the yield increased 10.8%, and 11.9% increased seed kernels.
Third, deep plowing or deep plowing, deep plowing or deep plowing of live thick soil layer, breaking the hard "plough bottom layer", thickening the living soil layer, can increase soil porosity, reduce soil capacity, improve the permeability of the entire soil Sex. When rainfall or irrigation, it can accept and save more water, and it can be used for absorbing and utilizing peanuts during drought. In addition, deep plowing or deep plowing improved the structure of the entire soil, promoted the growth and development of the root system, deepened the roots, and extended the range. The large roots absorbed water and fertilizers, and their ability to resist drought increased. The â€œno-deep-cultivationâ€ soil conditioner can break the hard â€œplough bottomâ€ through biochemical action, improve soil physical and chemical properties, make loose soil, increase porosity, and increase storage and storage of water, which can be tested and promoted.
4. Increase the use of organic fertilizers and straws to return organic fertilizers and crop stalks to the field and implement conservation tillage. Not only do energy sources continuously release all kinds of nutrient elements, especially various trace elements required by crops; they are decomposed during decomposition. During the process, humus is formed, so that the granular structure in the soil is increased, the buffer capacity is enhanced, the water storage capacity is increased, and the permeability is good, thereby enhancing the drought resistance of the peanut. The straw also covers the ground in the initial stage to prevent the evaporation of soil moisture.
V. Accurate dilute sowing, saving water and newly approved and passed certification of some of the new varieties of the "Yuyu" series, resulting in a wide range of results, a number of single plant results, individual productivity, can implement single precision and sparse planting, give full play to Individuals increase production potential, reduce the number of individuals per unit area, reduce water consumption, so as to achieve water-saving, drought-resistant and high yield.
6. Other water-saving and drought-resistance management measures The plastic film shall cover the exposed trenches. After the rain or irrigation, the soil shall be soiled in a timely manner to reduce the evaporation of soil moisture; the slopes with larger slopes shall be blocked at a certain distance, and the rainwater shall be increased. The time and quantity of irrigation water seepage can enhance the drought resistance to a certain extent. Foliar spraying has the effect of inhibiting transpiration by foliar fertilizers or regulators, and it also enhances the drought resistance of peanuts.
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