First, management characteristics
The purpose of mango fruit tree management is to ensure that the resulting tree has sufficient nutrients for the tree's robust growth, high yield, stable yield, high quality and increased economic efficiency. The management features are: 1 to ensure a deep, fertile, loose and porous soil environment conducive to the growth of powerful roots of mature fruit trees, thereby promoting the robust growth of the tree. 2 Adequate and balanced fertilizer supply satisfies different nutrient requirements for fruit tree shoots, flowering, fruiting and other stages. 8 Reasonable pruning makes the structure of the tree good, strong skeleton, can load a lot of fruit. Branches are evenly distributed. Reasonable use of space, access to adequate light, in order to yield, stable production, high quality and prolong the economic life of mango trees.
Second, soil management
Intertillage: After the soil has been changed, the young orchard is matured, but as the fruit trees enter the adult stage, frequent management of the orchard, continuous consumption of organic fertilizers, and application of inorganic fertilizers make it easier for the upper layers. Soil compaction affects the penetration of water, fertilizer, and gas, and the extension of the root system. Therefore, soil cultivation is imperative for adult mango gardens. Soil tillage is mainly cultivating weeds for mature orchards. The cultivator is used to make shallow mantle in the mango orchard in the summer and fall of the mango growth, so as to keep the soil loose and breathable, promote microbial reproduction and oxidative decomposition of organic matter, and can significantly increase soil organic nitrogen in the short term; the cultivator can also cut off the soil capillary and reduce water evaporation. Enhance soil water retention. Therefore, cultivating loose soil can play a role in weed control, fertilizer conservation, and water conservation. The number of cultivators should be determined according to the local climate characteristics and the number of weeds. The effect of weeding is better when the weeds are in seedling stage and before seeding, which can eliminate a large amount of weeds, reduce the number of weeds and reduce the breeding of diseases and insects. The depth of the cultivator is generally 20 to 40 cm. When the roots are too deep, the growth of the mangoes is unfavorable. When the cultivator's depth is too shallow, the cultivator's role should not be achieved. During the cultivating period, the fruit should be drooped to the harvesting fruit, and the cultivator can be 2-3 times a year.
Cultivating soil: Cultivating soil has the function of thickening the soil layer, protecting the root system, increasing nutrition, and improving soil structure. The mango planting area in southern China is hot and rainy, and the soil leaching loss is serious. Therefore, thickening the soil layer protects the root system and has the effect of fertilization. Earthwork should be carried out every year. Soils with heavy clay orchards should contain loose soil with more sandy soil. Orchards with more sandy soils should be cultured with mud, mud, river mud and other heavy soil. The method of earth-cultivation is to evenly distribute the soil in the whole garden, and break it by drying. The soil to be cultivated is gradually mixed with the original soil through cultivation. The thickness of the soil should be suitable, and the thickness of the soil should not be too thin to achieve the effect of soil cultivation. Mango tree growth and development.
Third, fertilizer and water management
(1) Demand for each element of the mango fruit tree The manure plays an important role in the growth and development of mangoes to the flowering results. It is the material basis for mango fast growth, early fruiting and high yield. Studies have shown that production of 1,000 kilograms of mango takes away 6.9 kilograms of nitrogen, 0.8 kilograms of phosphorus, 6.6 kilograms of potassium, 5.9 kilograms of calcium, and 3.1 kilograms of manganese. The mango requirement for manure during the visible period of time is very big. The effects of various elements on mango are different. Nitrogen fertilizer can promote vegetative growth, increase photosynthetic efficiency, improve quality and increase yield. Phosphorus fertilizer can enhance the vitality of the resulting tree, promote flower bud differentiation and fruit development. The proper amount of potassium can promote fruit ripening and promote the conversion and transport of enzymes. Calcium plays an important role in the balance of physiological activity in fruit trees. The results of tree fertilization in order to reasonably adjust the contradiction between vegetative growth and reproductive growth as the principle, not only to promote the flowering results of the year, control the long Xia Tiao, but also to promote autumn shoot germination, lay the foundation for the second year of high yield. Mango trees have different proportions of various fertilizers, and special attention should be paid to calcium and magnesium fertilizers and trace element boron and zinc supplementation, especially in the soil conditions in southern China.
(2) Fertilizing amount and fertilization period The proportion of fertilizers and the proportions of elements between mature mangoes at different ages are different due to the increase in the age of trees, the increase in the amount of results and the change in environmental conditions, and the variety, phenology, soil and fertilizer types. There are many factors involved. The amount of fertilizer to be used depends on the growth and development stages of mango, growth and fertilizer characteristics. Results The tree needs full supply of various nutrients during flowering, early fruit development, and shoot emergence. When the vegetative growth of a plant is too prosperous, it will lead to an increase in shoot shoot length and pests and diseases. At this time, less nitrogen fertilizer should be applied. If the plants consume too much nutrients or other reasons do not pump an appropriate amount of new shoots after a high yield, nitrogen fertilizer should be added; It is more important for the results tree to maintain the relative balance of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. According to the characteristics of growth and development of mango trees, the results tree needs more fertilizer in the following periods: tree vigor recovery after picking and new shoot culture period, flower bud differentiation period, flowering fruit setting period and fruit rapid expansion period. Therefore, the fertilization of the result tree focuses on the following several times:
1 before and after fruit picking:
This time fertilization is very important. As a result of a large number of plants, a lot of nutrients are consumed, especially the trees with many fruits often stop growing because of fruiting. If the fertilizer is not applied in time, the tree vigor will be weak, and it will be difficult to restore growth. This will inevitably affect the cultivation of the shoots resulting from autumn shoots. And the second year's output. This fertilizer is also the focus of fertilization throughout the year. The amount of fertilizer used accounts for 60% to 80% of the annual fertilization amount. Organic fertilizer is the main fertilizer and is combined with quick-effect fertilizer. At this time, the green manure is strong, and deep plowing can be combined to expand the hole. Under the foliage of each tree, two fertilizing ditches with a length of 120 cm, width and depth of 45-60 cm are dug symmetrically, filled with green manure and high-quality livestock manure 20-30. Kilograms, and 0.8-1 kg of urea fertilizer, 0.5-1 kg of compound fertilizer, and 0.5-1 kg of superphosphate, which have both fast-acting fertilizer and delayed-effect fertilizer, restore the tree vigor after fruit picking, and promote the last time The timely growth of autumn shoots, accumulation of photosynthetic nutrients, and flower bud differentiation have a very good effect.
2 flower fertilizer:
The flower bud differentiation period of mango is about 11-12 months according to different regions. In the period of November-November, 15-20 kg of fertilizer or 0.5-1000 kg of nitrogen-potassium fertilizer (potassium nitrate, etc.) should be applied to each plant to promote flower bud differentiation. Guarantee the development of flowers.
2 strong flower fat:
Generally from January to March, it is the flower bud development and flowering period. This fertilizer can increase the nutrient level of the tree, promote the development of spikes and florets, increase the ratio of bisexual flowers, enhance flower quality, and enhance the ability to resist adverse weather such as low temperature, rain, and rain. Fruit setting rate. Therefore, a small amount of fast-acting fertilizer should be applied in time. Each plant should be treated with NPK=15-15 to 15 to produce 200-400 g of compound fertilizer, and 0.1% borax can be sprayed on the foliage at the flowering stage, and 0.2% of 0.2% of potassium dihydrogen phosphate can be sprayed. And 0.4% urea.
4 strong fruit fertilizer:
April-May is the period of rapid fruit growth. This period of time is short, the growth rate is extremely fast, and at the same time it is the spring and summer shoot period. At this time, nutrient deficiency will cause a large number of fruit drop. This fertilizer has direct supply of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. In addition, the role of coordination between shoots and the distribution of nutrients in fruits is more important. During the fruit development period, the demand for potassium exceeds that of nitrogen, so the amount, type and proportion of fertilizers in this period will depend on the tree. At the beginning of the results, for trees with excessive flowering and fruitful results, 300-500g of fast-acting nitrogen:potassium = 1:1.5 compost can be applied per plant, and also quick-effect liquid fertilizer (dung water) and 0.2-0.3kg of compound fertilizer can be applied. 0.3% urea and 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate are sprayed on the roots, and calcium, magnesium or other trace elements are added if necessary.
(3) Fertilization methods Fertilization methods also apply to soil and top-dressing. The soil application must be based on the characteristics of the root distribution, the fertilizer applied in the root distribution layer, so that plants can fully absorb, fertilize must be close to the root system, and to ensure a certain amount of water supply. The method is to dig a half-moon-shaped groove along the canopy drip line (20-30 cm wide, 15-20 cm deep and 60 cm long). If no rain occurs after fertilization, it must be filled with water or water to ensure that the root system can fully absorb the fertilizer. Root dressing fertilizer with young trees.
In recent years, the new planting orchards have generally grown in the direction of dense planting. Planting of 66-67 square meters has reached 60-80 strains. Many orchards have just started trial production in the third year after planting, and their branches and leaves are dense. The poor ventilation of the canopy is not conducive to the photosynthetic effect of the leaves and the prevention of pests and diseases. The trees with many results will not be able to restore their vistas and restore their growth without being trimmed. The saplings that have been put into production for the first time have been basically completed, but they still need to be pruned every year to maintain the tree shape. Therefore, the meaning of trimming the result tree is even more important.
(1) Pruning Period The pruning period of the tree includes pruning after fruit picking and pruning during growing period. In addition to Hainan, most of the mango planting areas in southern China are harvested from July to August. The flower bud differentiation period is from November to December. During this period, it is necessary to ensure that 1-2 new shoots are extracted as the next year. The results of the mother branch, and 1 drawing from the hair to the old maturity of 20 to 40 days, such as harvesting after not timely pruning will affect the germination of the new shoots and the last tip of the old cooked. Therefore, pruning after fruit picking should be completed before the end of August; pruning during the growth period includes autumn tip pruning, flowering pruning, and summer tip pruning.
(2) Pruning intensity and method Mango trees are pruned fruit trees, and the strength of pruning differs depending on the species, tree age, tree vigor, planting density, and management level. For the slow expansion of tree crowns and the growth of moderate, the initial results of the tree pruning should be light, and for vigorous growth, the rapid expansion of the tree crown, planting density of the tree should be heavy pruning, but in general, the general amount of pruning in the crown of the amount of leaves 1/3-1/2.
1 Pruning after fruit picking:
The pruning method after fruit harvesting is based on the short-resulting mother-branches, and the excessively dense branches and excessive main branches are cut off appropriately, and the number and the angle of the permanent branches of the crown are adjusted to make it uniform, and the crown is retracted. The cross-branched and overlapping branches in the crown cut off the drooping branches, the disordered branches and the diseased shoots. In oversized trees with little or little results, some branches can be removed, weakening vegetative growth and increasing the ventilation of the canopy at the beginning of the result, which can prevent fruit drop and reduce the amount of pruning after fruit harvesting. The application of heavy fertilizer before and after pruning allows the root system to quickly absorb nutrients for the growth of foliage and nutrient accumulation. The result tree with a tree age of less than 10 years does not consider the pruning after fruit harvesting to be too heavy. However, the tree with a tree age of more than 10 years is tall and branches are disordered, which not only affects the ventilation and light transmission of the orchard, but also causes inconvenience to management. It is not the size of the crown that determines the yield of the mango tree, but the amount of the resulting branch. The test results showed that the old tree trunk was truncated and kept at a height of 1.5 meters, and the first-level branch was gradually cultivated to the fourth-order branch. The first-two-year period was the stage of culturing the branch, and the third year was the result of the cultivation and reached 60. In the fourth year, after trimming and pruning, the mother branch was adjusted to 120. This will not only facilitate the management, but will also maintain the stability of the yield, and the quality and appearance will be improved. Each soil can be cultivated during the cultivation of the resulting mother tree. 20 grams of paclobutrazol was used to promote flower bud differentiation.
2 growth trim:
As a result, the pruning of the tree during the growing season mainly takes the method of brushing, thinning and short cutting. Autumn tip pruning at the pumping stage: After picking the fruit, the autumn shoots are trimmed and removed, and 1-3 are reserved according to the spatial position. The rest are erased, and the remaining shoots are shortened to 18-20 cm. Secondary extraction of autumn shoots. In this way, the last autumn shoots were harvested with 18-20 cm long, moderately thick shoots as the resulting mother shoots, and the rest were erased. The pruning of the spring and summer shoots: In the small year of flowering, the spring and summer tip shoots prosperously. The new shoots rob violently of nutrients, resulting in delicate inflorescences and low fruit setting rate. Therefore, the flowering amount is less than 50. Percentage of trees, depending on the situation, to spread buds, in order to ensure adequate nutrition to promote normal inflorescence. The summer pumping period coincides with the rapid growth and development of the fruit. In order to avoid nutrient contention, all shoots are erased about 3-5 cm at the summer shoots until the late fruit growth.
Results Tree In order to maintain good lighting conditions, pruning should be a regular and indispensable management measure. Only through scientific and reasonable pruning can we cultivate a tree that can overcome years, ensure high yields, and produce good results.
V. Results Parental Cultivation
Most of the mango spikes were drawn from the tips of the shoots or the leafhoppers that were last smoked last year. The previous year's branches were drawn once a year, such as spring shoots, summers, autumn shoots, or if they were smoked twice a year, such as spring summer shoots, summer one shoots, or; , Such as the spring and summer one autumn shoots, spring and autumn one autumn shoots; summer one autumn one shoots; generally can ear blossom. However, if there are four consecutive tappings, the heading rate is low, and the tip of the last one should be removed (late autumn shoots or winter shoots) to make the remaining shoots mature and accumulate nutrients, which will facilitate the heading and flowering in the coming year. Although the results of the survey showed that in summer, winter and winter shoots and knots strength analysis, summer shoots have the strongest knot strength, followed by autumn shoots, and winter shoots the weakest, but in most of the mango planting areas in China, spring and summer shoot picking period Positive flowering and fruit development. Therefore, the spring and summer shoots of high-yield trees draw little or no smoke, and the results of the next year depend on the autumn shoots. Regardless of the variety of mango cultivation, we must pay attention to regulating the balance of reproduction and growth, so that flowering results can still draw. The autumn shoots or early winter shoots that are required to stop at a timely pace in South China are the key to cultivating excellent mother trees. High-yield trees are sagging due to too many fruits and heavy loads, and they should be combined with appropriate fertilization in proper time after fruit picking to promote strong autumn shoots. Low-latitude regions can be pruned by the end of August, and strive to mature at the end of the first shoot from the end of December to early January, into the flower bud differentiation, (such as the last shoot is still not mature at the end of December or early January, the risk of flower bud differentiation is great.) Therefore, pruning after harvesting should generally be completed before the end of August, and ensure that there is sufficient supply of water and fertilizer, so that the branches shoot 1-2 times before flower bud differentiation, to ensure the results of the mother branch. There are many ways to control the pumping of the shoots to ensure the differentiation of flower buds: for example, water irrigation and tipping, and late water control to reduce the number of shoots.
VI. Flowering Management
(1) Thinning of flowers and removal of early flowers In the winter and spring of South China, there is sufficient low temperature and less rain, which is favorable to the differentiation of flower buds of mangoes. If it is not affected by chilling, the inflorescence is too long and often consumes too much nutrients, and 50% to 60% of the final shoots are good, and most flowers and inflorescences are ineffective. Therefore, excessive flowering should be sparse. The method used was to leave 70% of the last stage shoots per tree and the rest to remove the entire inflorescence from the base, leaving the inflorescences of medium length, similar flowering and robustness as the standard. Another method of flowering is to cut off the 1/3-1/2 lateral branches of the inflorescence base. Production can be combined with a variety of methods to spend. The flowering period of mango is too early. The flowering period is between January and February. It is a low-temperature and rainy weather in most parts of southern China. It affects flowering and insect activity, resulting in poor pollination and fertilization. Moreover, continuous rainy weather can cause the breeding of pathogens, resulting in mild and rotten inflorescences. Therefore, for premature flowering, when the inflorescence length does not exceed 6 cm, it is promptly removed, which delays the flowering period and ensures the flowering quality.
(2) The use of plant hormones to regulate flowering and flower quality Mango has historically been known as infertility because it is caused by hereditary traits in many breeds with low rates of floral or floral organs, pollen germination, or low germination rates. Due to the low temperature and raininess during flowering, pollination and fertilization of flowers are affected, and the chance of forming no embryos increases, resulting in a large number of fruit drop. After breeding some improved varieties, the rate of sexual flowers is higher, and flower organ development is also relatively normal. However, due to the excessive flower volume, it consumes a lot of nutrients and directly affects the quality of flowers. Therefore, the quality of flowers and flowers are also guaranteed. Mango production quality and quantity important measures. The increase in the amount of flowers has been tested using 1000-4000 mg/L chlormethorine; spraying 200-300 mg/L ethephon with 10% potassium nitrate or 1000 mg/L B9 can promote flower bud differentiation and increase Gender ratio. Ethephon and B9 spray, spray 1-2 times B9 first, spray ethephon last, spray once every 20 days, can increase the amount of mango flowers. Spraying 2,4-D, naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) during the formation of flower buds of mango can also promote the increase of hermaphroditic flowers. For lack of early spring flowers, 0.08-0.1% of pp333 plus 0.03% of 0.035% of ethephon is sprayed immediately when the shoot length does not exceed 5 cm, and the growth of spring shoots can be stopped at low temperatures. The young leaves curl off and the buds on the side of the bud turn into flower buds. The control of flowering amount during the dormancy period of bud treatment with 200 mg/L gibberellin can prevent the formation of flower buds, which is of practical significance in the case of excessive flowering and premature flowering. To improve flower quality can be used to improve flower quality can use sparse methods. Because the sparse flower can reduce the incidence of malformed flowers and ensure the normal growth of inflorescence. In addition, moderate pruning after fruit picking, and subsequent shoots will not consume too much nutrients, nor will it reduce the total nutrient storage of the tree during the year, improve the quality of flower bud differentiation, increase the ratio of bisexual flowers, and thus increase fruit production. The production and commercial nature. In addition, when the early spring drought, a time when the mango blossom, in order to ensure the quality of flowers, irrigation or water spray in the orchard, can improve the orchard environment, increase the wetness, conducive to mango pollination and fertilization.
(3) Prevention and Control of Pests and Diseases during Flowering Period During the flowering period of mango, special attention should be paid to the control of pests and diseases. Several main pest control methods during the flowering period: 1 Powdery mildew: It is the main disease of the mango flowering period, which can cause a large number of flowering and fruit drop. Control methods: Spraying during flowering period, using 50% 10% of inflorescence when using 40% extermination and 400-600 times of liquid suspension, except for flowering period, spraying once every 10-15 days, spraying 2-3 times . 2 Anthracnose: It is the most important disease of mangoes, causing flowering ears to dry during the flowering period. Control methods: heading 5 cm before heading with copper-containing fungicide or b. 8 Late-night pods on the mango line: The larvae feed on the shoots and spikes of mangoes, causing them to wither. Control methods: spray with 95% trichlorfon or 50% killer pine 800-1000 times, once a week, spray 2-3 times. 4 mango flat leafhopper: Adults, nymphs often gather and absorb mango buds, shoots, leaves and spike sap, leading to withered ears. Control methods: Flower buds are sprayed with 50% leafhopper WP or 50% Malathion EC from 1000-1500 times.
(4) Shi Zhuang Huafei In the early spring flower buds germination and flowering, it is necessary to timely apply a small amount of quick-acting fertilizers to facilitate flower bud differentiation and flower growth and robustness.
Seven, fruit preservation technology
The ripening of mango from flowering to fruiting takes 100-150 days. There are two distinct physiological fruiting stages in the whole fruit development period. The first is the fruit drop caused by poor pollination and fertilization within 15 days after flowering; the second time is after flowering. - For 60 days, small fruit grows about peanuts and drops fruit when it is in size. After 2 fruit failures, the fruit enters the rapid expansion stage, which also causes a third fruit drop. This is because at this time, the tree body is consumed with too much nutrients, fruit, or competition for nutrients caused by the summer shoots. And drop the fruit. Therefore, by spraying chemicals, removing summer shoots, fertilizing materials and other methods to adjust the tree nutrients, reduce fruit drop, to achieve fruit preservation purposes.
1 spraying chemical agents: studies have reported that in the flowering period spraying, with gibberellin (GA3) 0.72 mmol / l 10 6-benzyl amino purine 1.5 mmol / l tennaphthyl acetate 0.31 mmol / l fruit preservation effect It is best to spray a few times 2,4-D 5-30 mg/L in the young fruit period. It also has a certain fruit protection effect; when the young fruit grows to a large amount of peas, the naphthalene acetic acid 40 mg/L, after 1 month Spray 1 more time to improve fruit setting and increase fruit size. To reduce fruit drop before harvest, it is recommended to try 2,4,5 drops of isopropyl ester (2,4,5-TP) 50000 times, 7-12 days after spraying. The effective period of 5-7 weeks can also make the fruit color well.
2 Extirpation of summer shoots: The germination of summer shoots coincides with rapid fruit enlargement. In order to reduce competition for tree nutrients, summer shoots taken out in April-June should be removed, but trees with more or weaker growth should be kept in place. New shoots to regulate the contradiction between vegetative growth and reproductive growth are conducive to the restoration of tree vigor after fruit harvest.
2 increase fertilization material: mango Xie Hua can be sprayed on the foliar 1% urea solution, or 0.5% urea plus 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixture, when the young fruit development to peanut size can be sprayed again.
4 Fruit thinning: adult tree results in excess results can induce large and small annual results, and 98% of the young fruit will be physiological loss, and ultimately maintained to the very small number of harvest. Therefore, in order to ensure that the young fruits left behind are in a timely manner, sparsely developed, small, and overly dense fruits will be left with 2-4 larger, bright green leaves and young fruit that grow vigorously in each inflorescence. Healthy growth under adequate nutrient conditions. The fruit thinning period is after the first physiological fruit drop, and before the second physiological fruit drop, it is within 15-30 days after Xiehua.
It is advisable to use sunny mornings for harvesting. In the event of a typhoon season, the typhoon season should be avoided as soon as possible. Rainy days and storms should not be harvested within 2 days after the storm. Otherwise, the fruit flow is severe and storage is not tolerated. Collecting workers should wear gloves. When harvesting, one fruit and two cut methods should be used. The first cut fruit stalk should be about 5 cm long, and the second cut fruit stalk should be about 0.5 cm long. If you do not pick it up, you can use bagged bamboo baskets (with knife hooks) to pick fruit. Containers used in field applications should be applied with soft liners to prevent stab wounds. When the fruit is placed, cut it down, put a layer of newspaper on each layer of fruit to avoid mutual contamination of the fruit surface with milk. When harvesting, mechanical damage should be avoided as much as possible to reduce fruit rot during ripening.
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