In recent years, the summer soybeans often appear yellow leaves, plant dwarfing dead seedling phenomenon, the author through the survey that there are the following main reasons, the results and prevention measures are described as follows:
I. Soybean blight causes dead bacterial seedlings in seedling stage of dead seedlings, brown ring spots on the cotyledon of seedlings, necrosis at growth points, severe whole plant withered; plants that are susceptible to early flowering, internodes of diseased plants prolonged, and top The buds turn brown and bent into hooks. The plants begin to become brittle and fold easily. The plants in the late flowering stage to the grain-filling stage are susceptible to falling buds and leaves. The stem sections and the medullary parts close to the branches turn brown. It is small, stunted, and the seeds are not full, and often matured until maturity and remain green until harvested. Prevention and control measures: (1) The site where the plot occurred should be removed from the diseased plant. (2) When it is confirmed that soybean top blight is infected, spray it with 64% antivirus 600 times liquid or 75% chlorothalonil 600 times liquid in time.
2. Soybean cyst nematode caused dead soybean cyst nematode at seedling stage, cotyledons and true leaves become yellow, stunted, and the whole plant withered; adult soybean cyst nematode damage, dwarfing plants, leaves Yellow from bottom to top, flowering time is delayed, and the seeds are not full and the color is dark. Pulling out the diseased plant shows that the root system is underdeveloped, with many roots, few root nodules, and a lot of cyst nematodes attached to the root (shaped as tiny yellow particles). Control measures: (1) Increase organic fertilizer application. By improving soil fertility, promote healthy growth of soybeans. (B) timely irrigation, increase soil moisture. Soil drought is beneficial to the damage of soybean cyst nematode. (3) Timely application of a 40% omethoate 1000 times solution to the stem base of the plant.
Third, the death of bean worm fly worm disease caused by bean fly worm disease occurs mainly in the soybean field that is not fully decomposed organic fertilizer or heavy hoe. Soybean seedlings showed a normal disease in the lower leaves of the plants, and all of the upper leaves were yellow. The rhizomes were peeled off, and pod maggots and worms were visible in the culms. Control measures: Use 40% of omethoate or phoxim 1000 times to spray 1 time during the seedling and flowering stages.
IV. Malnutrition The malnutrition mainly occurs in fields that lack fertilizers, or in areas where there is a single application of chemical fertilizers, or where severe drought occurs. Soybean plants have different degrees of leaf yellowing, shrinkage, and slow growth. Control measures: Spraying Huimanfeng 50-80 milliliters per acre plus 100 grams of potassium dihydrogen phosphate to 30-50 kilograms of water, which can relieve or eliminate symptoms and restore normal growth of soybeans.
Fifth, the residue of herbicide residue on the first one is the herbicide applied in wheat field too late. In early spring, due to the low temperature, the time for chemical weeding in some farmers' farms was postponed to April 10, due to the large age of grass, and accordingly the use of superstars and tribenuron-methyl was increased, which was 0.5 to 1 times more than the conventional amount and increased. Soil pesticide residues. Summer sowing dates are mostly from June 5th to 10th. The use period of superstars and tribenuron-methyl is a safe period 60 days after the sowing of the next crop, so that part of the farmers' time spent on the top of the crops does not reach the required period of safety during the planting period of the next crop, resulting in the occurrence of phytotoxicity. The second is the use of A, chlorsulfuron and its compound in wheat fields. The soil in Huaibei area is mostly neutral alkali. A and chlorsulfuron are very difficult to be decomposed in alkaline soils, and they are prone to produce phytotoxicity to crops. After the use of such herbicides in wheat fields, the lower soybeans are weaker and weaker, while the others are not able to establish seedlings, and the yield is reduced by about 80%. Although pesticides of this type have been banned from use, the pesticides market is still sold. Therefore, the resulting phytotoxicity has repeatedly occurred. Prevention and control measures: Water damage is found promptly after spraying, and foliar fertilizer or plant growth regulators are sprayed.
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