Vacuum pumps in various industries

As we all know, because the water ring vacuum pump and the water ring compressor have the characteristics of simple structure, convenient use and maintenance, it has been widely used in all walks of life. Especially with the characteristics of isothermal compression, it is easy to suck and compress flammable and explosive gases. Here are some rough ideas about its development and design and development.

1 Upsizing

Due to the development of industries such as coal mines, chemical industry, pharmaceuticals and papermaking, the requirements for water ring vacuum pumps have been increasingly developed toward large scale. Before 2000, China was able to produce only 3-4 water ring vacuum pumps with a pumping capacity of 100m3/min or more. The annual output of the country was only a few dozen. Only three years later, in 2003, there were more than 10 manufacturers of large pumps capable of producing more than 100m3/min in the country (of which only 7-8 were in Zibo area). According to incomplete statistics, the country’s largest pump With a production capacity of several hundred units or more, these products are mainly used for:

(1) Coal Mine Industry

As the country has strengthened its safety requirements for coal mines, the use of water ring vacuum pumps, especially large-scale water ring vacuum pumps, has become a necessary safety requirement for the coal mining industry. For example, a number of pumped air volumes ordered by a mining bureau in Shaanxi reached 400m3/year last year. The ultra-large water ring vacuum pump of min is used to remove gas gas, and some large coal mines use large pumps of 100m3/min to reach 7-8. As the country further strengthens the safety work, large-scale and extra-large water ring vacuum pumps will be increasingly used in coal mine systems.

In addition, due to the rapid increase in coal production, the vacuum filter used for coal washing and coal preparation has also grown to large scale. In the 1980s, most of them were SZ-4 water ring vacuum pumps with a suction capacity of 27m3/min. It was also larger at that time. In recent years, coal mine filter units have been equipped with large-scale water ring vacuum pumps with an air pumping capacity of 80--150m3/min. Some of them have reached 200m3/min or more, and there is a tendency for the air volume to continue to increase.

(2) Chemical industry

a) Chlor-alkali industry

In recent years, China has initiated many large-scale infrastructure and technological transformation projects. The actual children of these projects need a lot of PVC materials, especially the booming real estate, which has further promoted the development of the PVC industry, according to the chlor-alkali industry. According to statistics, China produced 4.1 million tons of polyvinyl chloride last year and imported 200 tons. According to the prediction of the industry, the national demand in 2005 will reach 8 million tons, and by 2010 it will reach 15 million tons. It is precisely because of the rapid increase in demand that the enterprises in the chlor-alkali industry in China will increase production and expand production, and In one or two years, many new businesses were introduced. The development of chlor-alkali enterprises must be matched with water-salinity pumps and water-ring compressors. The water ring vacuum pumps and water-ring compressors used to extract and compress acetylene and hydrogen have only reached 30m3/min in the past, but now they produce 100,000 tons per year. Companies that use caustic soda and 100,000 tons of polyvinyl chloride need more than 70m3/min of water ring vacuum pumps and water ring compressors.

What needs special mention here is that it is precisely because of the development of this industry that it has promoted and accelerated the development and production of higher I-ring water ring compressors. For a long time, China's water ring compressors are generally when the suction pressure is 1 atmosphere or slightly lower than the helium pressure, the exclusion pressure is 0.1 MPa, ie, the compression ratio is 2, and individual companies have produced water ring compressions with pressures up to 25 MPaG. Machine, and only 1--2 specifications. In order to adapt to the production of PVC, the former State Council’s major equipment office proposed the recycling of vinyl chloride recycling water ring compressors in the “8th Five-Year” major technological equipment research project—the annual production of 4 tons of low-polymerization PVC equipment. Research and development issues, this water-ring compressor for vinyl chloride monomer recovery requires a discharge pressure of 0.55-0.6 MPaG and a displacement of 700 m3/min when the suction pressure is normal or slightly negative. After several years of hard work, our company passed the technical appraisal organized by the former State Ministry of Machinery in December 1996, and the guest technology technology has reached the requirements for research. Based on this product, our company has also developed a series of products with a displacement of 90m3/min to 2000m. /h. As this equipment is one of the key equipments in the PVC industry, this water ring compressor has been popularized and applied in the situation of the PVC project in China in recent years, completely replacing the import.

b) Fertilizer industry

Fertilizer industry, especially production of phosphate fertilizer, is also a key support industry in China's economic macro-control. As new projects and old enterprises are technologically advanced at or above the scale, large-scale and super-large water ring vacuum pumps are also obtained here. Application, such as a phosphate fertilizer company in Yunnan, a new transformation of the pumping volume of 300m3/min extra large water ring pump 3 sets.

In addition, there are many phosphate fertilizer companies that require greater pumping capacity when the pressure is 80 to 100hPa absolute. Therefore, two-stage water ring vacuum pumps and two-stage water ring vacuum pumps with atmospheric ejectors are used here. Under these operating conditions, they have unique advantages. Many fertilizer companies have eliminated reciprocating vacuum pumps with high vibration and noise and high vacuum levels. They have replaced them with two-stage water ring vacuum pumps and have received good results. Two levels of water rings can be said. Vacuum pumps will become more and more widely used in this industry.

c) Paper industry

At the end of the last century and at the beginning of this century, China’s national debt has been invested in the papermaking industry, and paper mills across the country have been rushing to reform the level and scale. This has greatly stimulated the development and production of large-scale water ring vacuum pumps. A large-scale water ring vacuum pump with a capacity of 400 IIl3/min (currently the largest size water ring vacuum pump in China) with a total output of 400 kW was rebuilt. It can be said that 50% of the large-scale water ring vacuum pumps with pumping volumes above 100m3/min have been used in the papermaking industry in recent years, and this trend is increasing.

d) Pharmaceutical industry

Vacuum dehydration, drying, and distillation are the major technological processes of pharmaceutical companies. The technological transformation of pharmaceutical companies is also on the same level and on the scale. This is even more apparent in some large pharmaceutical companies. In the past, most of them used small pumps of 10m3/min or less. Now, in the bids for these companies, medium and large pumps with pumping volumes of 20m3/min or more account for the majority. In addition, many plants in the pharmaceutical industry have used two-stage water ring vacuum pumps with pumping volumes of 6-12 m3/min in the past, but they are now equipped with two-stage water ring vacuum pumps of 20-30 m3/min, and some have reached 60 m3/min. For example, in a joint venture pharmaceutical factory in Sichuan last year, a bid to buy 10 pumps with an air pump volume of 60m3/min was completed.

In addition to the above industries, the vacuum systems in the food, beer, and metallurgy, power generation, petrochemical, building materials, and other industries of the light industry are all developing toward large scales. For example, an aluminum plant in Shandong has long used multiple water rings with an air volume of 85m3/min. The vacuum pump, and last year's technical renovation project equipment bidding required water ring vacuum pumping volume to reach 140m3/min.

2 Completeness

It should be said that before 2000, almost all manufacturers of water ring vacuum pumps in China were based on sales of single pumps, and very few users had set complete sets of equipment. In the past two years, equipment and equipment for technological transformation projects in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries The increasing proportion of equipment accounts for the need for separators, coolers (heat exchangers), rehydration pumps, valves, meters, fittings, and controls to form a closed loop and require connection to the company’s OCS system. Online control of liquid level, pressure, and force.

The requirements for such mechatronics complete sets of equipment are becoming more common in many industries.

3 Large vacuum is required under higher vacuum

Many vacuum distillation, concentration, dehydration, drying in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, and the extraction of exhaust gas from power plants require a large amount of suction between suction pressures of 3--8 kPa. A single-stage water ring vacuum pump is pumped in this interval. The gas capacity is quite weak, and the two-stage water ring vacuum pump and the two-stage water ring vacuum pump with an atmospheric ejector are characterized by a large amount of inhalation in this interval. Before 2000, the demand for two-stage pumps was mostly It is less than 15m3/min, but it is now 40-50m3/min. In addition, it should also be pointed out that when a single-stage water ring vacuum pump is equipped with an atmospheric ejector, if the design is reasonable, there is still a large amount of suction when the suction pressure is 4--5 kPa, which greatly expands the single-stage water ring vacuum pump. The scope of use, such as an aircraft research institute in China, uses more than one such pump.

In summary, it can be seen that the water ring vacuum pump and the water ring compressor have been widely used in various industries as basic rough low vacuum obtaining equipment. It can also be said that the rapid development of various industries in the national economy has promoted the water ring vacuum pump and Water ring compressor development and production. Therefore, in order to better adapt to the development of various industries, the following rough points are put forward for the research and development of the pump.

(1) Improve the MTBF of the whole machine with feasibility design and high performance seals

The operating reliability of the water ring vacuum pump and the water ring compressor, that is, the average failure-free operation period, should be said to be higher compared with other crude low vacuum obtaining equipment, and the average failure-free operation period can reach more than 10,000 hours. However, with the improvement of technical progress in various industries and the improvement of the reliability requirements of the entire vacuum system, the reliability requirements thereof are correspondingly higher. In particular, under the conditions of strict safety requirements for chemical and coal mining gas, the pump will continue to operate for a long period of time, and the international advanced level can reach tens of thousands of hours. Therefore, the development of water ring vacuum pumps and water ring compressors as well as the limitations of manufacturing conditions and the quality of seals (especially mechanical seals) must be further improved in terms of improving the reliability of the complete machine. Work is further strengthened.

(2) Optimize the design method and strive to increase the pump efficiency and reduce energy consumption

Water ring vacuum pumps and water ring compressors are products with high energy consumption and low efficiency. This is a well-recognized fact that small pumps are generally 30-35% and large pumps are 40% or slightly higher. Such low efficiency and national The requirements of products and the current state of energy shortage in China are extremely incompatible. Therefore, an optimization design method should be adopted as soon as possible to establish a mathematical model for each geometric parameter of the impeller that is the most critical to the efficiency of the pump, and the starting position and area of ​​the suction/exhaust hole, etc., to optimize the design, and to select the optimal combination of each parameter, and to adopt The relevant theories and calculation formulas of vapor-liquid two-phase flow are designed to minimize the eddy current loss of the water ring and achieve the purpose of improving the efficiency. Therefore, designing and developing a highly efficient and energy-efficient water ring vacuum pump and compressor as soon as possible to eliminate obsolete products with high energy consumption and low efficiency is an important task in the design, development, and production of water ring vacuum pumps.

(3) Increase the air volume at the operating point with the air ejector.

Abroad, whether a single-stage water ring vacuum pump or a two-stage water ring vacuum pump is equipped with an atmospheric ejector to increase the suction amount under a lower suction pressure, there are still many cases. From the technical data of advanced technology companies abroad, we can see that when a single-stage water ring vacuum pump is equipped with an atmospheric ejector, the suction pressure is 5 kPa, and the pumping rate is up to 400 hPa. Point suction rate (user-used single-stage water ring vacuum pump common point) 65--70%, two-stage water ring vacuum pump with an atmospheric ejector, the suction rate at 1.5kPa point pumping rate can be When the pump has no atmospheric ejector, the suction rate is 8-7 kPa, which is 70-75% of the suction rate, which greatly expands the application range of the water ring vacuum pump. Satisfy the chemical, pharmaceutical, light industry, instrumentation, metallurgy, power generation and other industries require the suction pressure of 1.5--5kPa point large pumping rate of the process conditions. However, at present, the first is that the application of the water ring vacuum pump with atmospheric ejectors is not widely used; the second is that the pumping rate at the point of 1.5--5 kPa is relatively small, and there is a certain gap between the technical level of foreign advanced manufacturers. In order to further promote the application, the optimum ratio of the atmospheric ejector design to the water ring vacuum pump should be studied. Since the air flow is in the tapered section of the nozzle (Laval nozzle) and the diffuser of the atmospheric ejector, the flow is supersonic. The flow of air and the momentum exchange during the mixing of the air and the extracted gas are complicated. It is not possible to rely entirely on theoretical calculations. Many tests must be conducted, but the application of the water ring vacuum pump is increased and its efficiency is increased. Starting from the angle, it is necessary to strengthen experimental research and strive to increase its pumping efficiency.

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