Wheat anthracnose

Symptoms mainly damage leaf sheaths and leaves. The leaf sheath of the diseased wheat plant was firstly diseased at the base of the leaf sheath, resulting in a brown lesion. It produced an elliptical lesion 1–2 cm long, dark brown on the edges, grayish-brown on the middle, and a strip of brown spots extending longitudinally along the veins of the back, yellowing above the diseased part of the leaves. Withered; leaf lesions form nearly round to elliptical lesions. The diseased part of the later period became a piece, causing the leaves to die early. The above diseases have small black spots, which are the spore plates of pathogenic bacteria. Stems infected with shuttle-shaped brown lesions.

The pathogen, Colletotrichum graminicola (Ces.) Wils., describes anthrax spp., belonging to the fungus Armyceps sinensis. The conidium plate is long, dark brown, and is buried under the epidermis of the leaf sheath. Afterwards, the small black spots break through the epidermis. Diameter 50-200μm, dark brown bristles, size 50-1005-9 (μm), bristle with diaphragm, straight or slightly curved. The conidiophores are short, colorless to brown, separated, unbranched, and the conidial unit cells are colorless, crescent-shaped to spindle-shaped, 19-293-5 (μm) in size. The sexual state is Glomerella graminicola Polltis, which is known as a small crustacean and belongs to the genus Ascomycotina, rarely seen under natural conditions. The strain has host specialization, and different strains have different pathogenicity to wheat. The growth of pathogenic bacteria is moderate

25°C. In addition to infecting wheat, barley, oats, rye, corn, sorghum and grass weeds can also be infested.

Transmission Pathways and Pathogenic Conditions The pathogens may spread on the seed by conidium discs and mycelium growing on the host's diseased body over winter or summer. Seeds of infected seeds or roots of seedlings and stems of the neck or base are contacted with the soil in which they have been infected, and the disease can be caused. Conidia discs may appear in the affected area 10 days after the infection. In the field temperature of about 25 °C, humidity, water film conditions conducive to pathogen infection and spore formation. In the continuous cropping of weeds, fertilizers are insufficient, and soil alkaline plots are conducive to disease. There are significant differences in disease resistance among wheat varieties.

Control methods (1) Selection of wheat varieties resistant to anthracnose. (2) More than 3 years rotation with non-grainy crops. (3) Remove the diseased body or deep-deeply after harvest. (4) In areas or areas with severe disease, spray 50% benomyl WP 1500 times or 25% Benzophenone EC 800 times, prevent 1 or 15 days and then prevent one time.

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